Contents Chinese Abstract 2 English Abstract 3 1. Introduction 4 1.1 Background Information 4 1.2 Literature Review 5 2. Growth and Transformation of Typical Naughty Boy Tom Sawyer 7 2.1 The Development of Personality 7 2.2 The Change of Emotional Attitude 9 2.3 The Pursuit of Ideal 10 3. The Causes of the Growth and Transformation on Naughty Child 11 3.1 The Experience of Adventures 11 3.2 The Formation of Responsibility 12 3.3 The Growth of Self-consciousness 13 4. Conclusion 14 References 16 《汤姆•索亚历险记》中 顽童的成长与转变 摘 要 《汤姆•索亚历险记》作为19世纪最具影响力的作品之一,在读者心中占据着重要的文学作品地位。马克•吐温用部分童年的记忆和小说特有的写作技巧来呈现顽童汤姆的形象。通过一系列的冒险经历,汤姆•索亚从最初的顽皮捣蛋到最后的勇敢。少年的自我意识在逐渐成熟。顽童最终实现身心灵的成长变化,更加顽强,善良地返回到现实生活中去。



成长转变 The Growth and Transformation of Naughty Boys in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Abstract As one of the most influential works in the 19th century, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer occupies an important literary position in readers’ minds. Mark Twain uses some childhood memories and novel-specific writing skills to present the image of naughty Tom. Through a series of adventures, Tom Sawyer grows from naughty to the final brave. The self-consciousness of teenagers is gradually maturing. The naughty boy eventually realizes the growth and change of the body and mind, and returns to real life kindly and tenaciously. To further understand the causes of the growth of the image of naughty children, the paper first takes the protagonist Tom as an example to analyze his behaviors in different environments. Through the three aspects of the development of personality, emotional attitude change and the pursuit of life ideal, it can be gradually found the change of naughty boys. Besides, the paper discusses the environmental factors and analyzes the reasons for the growth and maturity of urchins. Naughty boys can gradually change under certain circumstances and adjust their mentality by adapting to the objective world. At the same time, the awakening of self-consciousness makes the urchins finally determine the step of growth and transformation. Studying the problem of the growth of naughty children helps us to discover the connotation of the image of naughty children and find the peculiarities of naughty children to encourage them to understand themselves. The paper explores the growth and transformation of naughty children from a child-oriented perspective, which has a certain innovative significance. Keywords: naughty children; growth; transformation 1. Introduction 1.1 Background Information The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is the representative works of Mark Twain in the late 19th century. Tom is a typical image of an American boy, pursuing freedom and taking risks. The protagonist is created by Mark Twain to subvert the perception of people in children’s literature at that time. The naughty boy is not only humorous in words, but also rebellious in behaviors. For example, he despises one who is called “good child” by adults. In all sorts of his mischief and adventures, the only purpose is to be recognized as a hero. Most people have the stereotype on naughty children. Even they are often not accepted by traditional educators or misunderstood by society. Therefore, the creation and appreciation of naughty children are neglected to some extent, lacking relevant theoretical researches. Mark Twain creates The Adventures of Tom Sawyer against the background in the great monopoly of American capitalist economy, which is of profound historical significance. He condenses his childhood experience into the novel and injects his own thoughts, combining microcosm of the times. It breaks away from the vulgar style of children’s memories and is full of the vitality. From contrast and hyperbole, the novel satirizes the vulgarity and conservatism of the citizens and the hypocrisy of bourgeoisie. From the adventures of the protagonist, the author criticizes the social customs, hypocritical religious ceremonies and the stereotyped school education in the United States, describing the free and lively minds of children in a cheerful tone. 1.1.1 Purpose and Significance Naughty boy is the most typical character in children’s literature. The naughty child is a child who loves and yearns for freedom. Naughty refers to children playing in the game and showing their innate desire for freedom and unrestrained natural instincts. It reflects the impulse of children’s life and is the release form of children’s psychological and physical energy. The opposite of the urchin is the clever obedient children, they are quiet and gentle. Therefore, urchins are traditionally regarded as naughty and undisciplined children. In fact, naughty children are neither the problem nor the bad one, but full of the spirit of games. They are alternative characters which are different from orthodox good children in children’s literature. The naughty boy is the protagonist of the game and the spokesman of the spirit of the game. In the children’s literature, it is accustomed to thinking only the children in need of education, and only to regard education as children’s education, while to ignore the usage for educating the adults themselves. Due to most of the domestic and foreign scholars’ researches on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in translation, character image analysis, text writing and aesthetic appeal, but the psychological activities, personality analysis or behavior characteristics of the characters in the novel are slightly inadequate. The paper takes the personality characteristics of naughty children as the basis, Tom Sawyer as an example, combining with the analysis of his external behavior to internal psychology to analyze the growth and transformation of naughty children, which will provide a new perspective for the study of children’s literature. In the creation and appreciation of children’s literature, the correct treatment of the urchins’ image can exude its unique aesthetic charm. With the most obvious nature, naughty children are representative of all the children. Taking the growth and transformation of Tom Sawyer as an example, the analysis of naughty children’s image is based on the definition of children to broaden the scope of traditional cognition towards naughty boys. Whether the causes behind their growth are in line with the trend of the evolution of naughty children is worth pondering. Through the discussion of children’s behavior and psychology, we need to respect children’s interest in their life, finding the growth of naughty children. We believe that the child-oriented view of children’s image can assist educators to protect the precious value of life in children’s mind, which helps children never lose their own special visions to the world. 1.2 Literature Review 1.2.1 Oversea Research on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Nowadays, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer mainly includes the following aspects: First of all, it is full of humorous narrative techniques. With distinctive humor language characteristics and extremely local language style, the novel possesses the reputation of the most outstanding work so far in American humor literature. The sense of humor is close to life, keeping the utmost authenticity with life, and reflects in every detail. It can be found that Mark Twain is popular in the world because of the universality and humanity of his humor. Obviously, what the humor presents to us not only just for laughing, but for combining irony, rationality and tragedy by standing on the basis of humor. Besides, it has a strong realistic sense. Mark Twain, on the other hand, embodies reality in words, such as glasses and the pulpit in the text, which endows the special aesthetic and practical meanings of the concrete object between the lines. Sharsha V (2018) emphasizes realism and racism in the article Realism and Racism in Mark Twain’s the Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It illustrates the state of racism in the United States and also indicates the discrimination in the real world. However, the paper lacks an in-depth explanation of the relationship between realism and other various concepts. If regional elements and realism are integrated, it will be more complete in the research of realism and racism. At the same time, Mohamad Arli Ramadhani (2013) explores the influence of social and cultural phenomena in southern society on the description of Tom Sawyer’s character. In his Character Building of Tom Sawyer in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer identifies socio-cultural issues that influence the characters of Tom Sawyer. It emphasizes that the biggest reason for character shaping comes from the influence of the social environment. So it cannot be simply summarized as the result of some subjective factors. He says the fact from other angles, such as economic conditions, racism, or Christian cultural values. In addition, the urchin Tom is often compared to another protagonist. Unlike Huck, the rebellion of the urchin Tom is limited. Oriard’s (1980) From Tom Sawyer to Huckleberry Finn: Toward Godly Play compares the characteristics of two protagonists, and objectively analyzes the differences of them. It points out clearly that Tom’s insurgency belongs to a docile rebellion. He has learned to value the resources of his family and community, and to accept a degree of external authority, by going through dangers and mistakes. However, the article lacks in-depth study of the causes. In fact, after comparing the differences, studying the causes can make a better interpretation of the image of the urchins, especially on the social objective factors and the subjective emotions of the characters. Exploring the cause and effect of the characters helps to understand the deeper creation meaning behind the characters. 1.2.2 Domestic Research on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer In recent years, most domestic scholars have interpreted the novel from the perspectives of Skopos theory, functional equivalence theory and ideological theory. Moreover, it is of great significance for some researchers to do the study from children’s literature translation. In On the Translation of Children’s Literature from the Perspective of Skopos Theory A Case Study of Two Chinese Versions of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Ma Yanchao (2010) suggests that the basic work of foreign literary translation should be accomplished from the perspective of children themselves. Chen Huiyan (2010) emphasizes the importance of a schematic framework in the present stage of humor translation. In addition, scholars also focus on the image of children in the novel, from the perspective of urchins to see the American society at that time. In the aspect of Tom Sawyer’s image shaping, (Li Shuqin, 2013) the most prominent feature of Tom’s image is that he breaks social norms and traditional rules of life, enriches his world with his creativity, and pursues his dream with an active and independent mind. Chinese scholars also pay considerable attention to Mark Twain’s creation of humor and satire in his novels, as well as his selection of narrative point of view. As described by Yang Huiyong (2015) in the article which is to analyze the image of Tom Sawyer, Tom is an image of a naughty boy in the article. He is intelligent and naughty, and is different with the unique cunning character of children. He is a special existence who possesses the characteristics of good children and bad children. In the exploration of the characteristics of naughty boy Tom, Qi Yongjiang (1999) says that the erudite naughty boy Tom Sawyer often skips school and is not a good student. But in fact, he is also a learned naughty boy. This contradictory and harmonious feature makes Tom full, lovely, vivid and true. 2. Growth and Transformation of Typical Naughty Boy Tom Sawyer 2.1 The Development of Personality The formation and development of children’s personality has to go through a long and complicated process. Among them, characters and behaviors are the essential embodiment of children’s personality development. It can find that Tom Sawyer has some following distinct features of personality. The naughty boy changes into a rebellious boy. His mischief behaviors always bring a series of difficulties to his aunt Polly. It is interesting that he can always be resourceful to help to smooth the punishments that each mischief brings. Because of the pedantic performance of the teacher, he laughs at them brazenly at school. For the reason of the repressed rules and regulations in the school, he would rather skip school or take various adventure activities than pretend to love learning. Tom seems out of tune with the whole school. What’s more, everything with the atmosphere there makes him feel a deep emotion of discomfort as a result of the hatred of restriction and meaningless repetition. Mark Twain creates a character Sid, who contrasts to Tom. He is a child who is completely opposed to Tom. He is studious and obedient. A really good child loved by adults such as Aunt Polly. It is with this sharp contrast that Tom’s rebellious psychology is further aroused, making him more disgusted with people and things in this environment. From the beginning, Tom simply pleases himself with simple naughtiness. When he encounters a well-dressed little boy on the street, Tom feels angry without reason, especially in comparison with his clothing. It implies the reason for Tom’s rebellious psychology. Children should have their original appearance. From a far-reaching point of view, the reason why Tom’s naughty performance can be understood and admired by people is that what he has done reflects people’s underlying instincts with the desire for freedom and the worship of the wild. People always long for freedom, admiring birds flying freely in the air and yearning fish swimming in the deep sea. But, the rules of reality and some sense of self-discipline restrict their behavior and spirit. And Tom’s performance awakens people’s instincts. Tom Sawyer, who can break freely from the shackles of the times, has his own independent opinion and makes reader gratify in pursuit of freedom. Tom is the clever child. Aunt Polly punishes him to whitewash the fence, which is originally a hard and boring job and do not match Tom’s playful character. But he is smart enough to turn the boring wall whitewashing into an enviable job for children. “Like it? Well, I don’t see why I oughtn’t to like it. Does a boy get a chance to whitewash a fence every day?” he said (Twain, 2008: 25). His words have stirred every child present. Tom not only doesn’t need to finish the boring task on his own, but also makes all the children scramble to give anything they have in exchange for a good chance to whiten the wall for him. The description of the transfer of the right to brush walls has always been talked about, and this plot fully shows Tom’s ingenuity. In the early stage of the novel, his agility is completely applied to play tricks, and as the story progresses, such agility and wit paves the way for later growth. The naive boy understands the sense of love gradually. Although Tom is a naughty boy, he also has a pure and innocent world. He thinks painting the wall as a game because everything is interesting and fancy in the eyes of the child. This is the biggest difference from an adult. Innocent and romantic children always have unspeakable thoughts in their minds. Becky, a beautiful girl becomes Tom’s sweet secret. When they first meet, the scene is so romantic that Tom has lost himself. He knows he has fallen in love with the girl. And Tom seems to know everything about love. If boys and girls are engaged, they can kiss. Tom is also a romantic person. The naughty boy understands the preciousness of emotions. The emotional germination of Tom and Becky has enriched the teenager’s original simple heart. Unlike other literary works, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer lacks a unified plot in the general sense and consists of a series of practical jokes and adventurous stories. The coherence of this novel is maintained by the protagonist. It can see how naughty and active the boy is, and also deeply makes us feel vivid and real characters. Even in the solemn church, Tom cannot bear to be alone. He unleashes a black bug and teases the curly dog, which both diverts himself and breaks the gloom of the church. Obviously, he has gained a lot of fun from this unexpected disturbance. Children never get bored with the spirit of the game. Naughty children are smart but reckless. Because no one is perfect, they are always learning and growing up. Those behaviors are reflections of their personality. Tom uses the ailment as an excuse to avoid the boring Monday, and the child’s hilarious performance is predictable. The more he wants to get sick, the weaker the pain becomes, and his body seems to be working against himself. Finally, Tom discovers the loose teeth. You can see how he reacts. At first he groans but no one finds him, so he calls louder so that someone could find he has illusions. Meanwhile, he doesn’t forget to take a few rests for groaning. But, Sid does not hear, sleeps unconsciously. That infuriates the hard-working Tom. This poor guy, who may have lost his teeth or toe’s mortified, pushes Sid in order to gain sympathy. He shows that he is really in deep pain. Of course, none of the actions has escaped the fate of going to school. Tom Sawyer at this time definitely doesn’t want his teeth to be pulled out. However, he pretends to suffer from toothache in the hope of playing truant. Contrary to his expectations, he does not succeed in escaping. Tom’s intention to pretend to be ill was clear at a glance. Humor, certainly, is not just based on satire; it is one of the correct ways to express feelings. Although Tom is always making a fool of himself, the author really expresses his love for Tom, rather than ridiculing the poor acting skills of the lovely character. So the more stupid Tom’s behavior is, the more popular he will be with the readers. 2.2 The Change of Emotional Attitude If growth is formed by physical and psychological changes, the transformation of emotional attitude is revealed by psychological changes. Although Tom Sawyer is still a carefree boy in the end, and his ways of thinking and behavior are the same as those known to readers in the previous chapters of the novel, his psychology is growing quietly in the progress of the story. It is mainly manifested in the emotional processing of people and things. At the beginning of the novel, he is a cunning, clever, imaginative boy with an intuitive understanding of human nature. He hates the rules and regulations bound to him and cannot comply with the various norms of social morality. He spends a lot of his personal time playing tricks and games, and is never bored. He gets used to those troublesome behaviors. In this way, Tom seldom takes anything seriously and seems to have nothing to worry about. As the novel progresses, these childish tricks that do not have to bear the consequences at first become more and more serious, even some beyond his expectations. Tom let himself and his little companions into an increasingly dangerous situation. At the same time, he finds himself in trouble, and he has to put the concern for others above his own, considering the consequences when things happen. First, he changes a little bit in his attitude towards things. The death of Dr. Robinson is the first apparent turning point in the story, which comes as a shock to Tom. He begins to change after he witnesses the incident. In this case, Tom who is in the life-threatening situation must decide whether to testify for an innocent person or to let Muff Potter die of unfounded crime. Tom is so anxious and guilty about Muff Potter’s fate that he wants Huck to reconsider their oath of secrecy. He tries to ease his conscience after visiting Muff Potter in prison, but that obviously does not relieve his torment. Though his personal safety might be affected, Tom still continues to follow his conscience in spite of unknown danger. He finally tells the truth in public with sincerity and fearlessness. Tom surpasses not only himself, but also all the villagers. He is the only one who has the courage to condemn Injun Joe morally. Tom can grow up and take responsibility as an adult, which enables him to defend the rights of others and speak for justice. In addition, Tom’s change to the people around him is apparent. Tom sneaks home after his first taste of adventure. He slips into the room to hide under the bed, where he finds several adults feeling sad and blaming themselves for the disappearance of those naughty children. The kind Aunt Polly, who has lost her loved ones, cries loudly which hits the heart of the stubborn child Tom Sawyer. He knows that his aunt loves him and cares about him from beginning to end. The author shows us the scene of Tom hiding under the bed and listening to adults’ crying. The sadder Polly Aunt is the more Tom wants to rush out. He begins to realize his importance in adult’s heart. When his mind is full of thoughts that he can’t wait to appear to hug these concerned adults, it’s obvious that his emotional attitude has changed. Tom begins to think about his family’s feelings in a different place. He can understand the adult’s concerns and no longer considers himself alone. He finds the softest part of his emotions and begins to regret his behavior without considering the consequences. Nevertheless, this time the urchin makes a visible effort to control him and quietly hides the feelings of adults. The sadness is then completely eliminated. Even in the fleeting moments of emotional empathy, it can be found from subtle changes in the protagonist’s emotional attitude. Tom plays as the silent actor under the bed in the most romantic way. The comic explanation of the story makes us not judge what has happened in Tom’s mood, but feel the quiet change of the little protagonist’s state of mind. 2.3 The Pursuit of Ideal From the entire story, it can be seen that the naughty boy Tom has sublimated in the ideal pursuit from honor of material to maturity of spirit. First of all, it is his desire for material enviable glory. Tom is mischievous in the school, looking for every opportunity to skip class. His performance is so terrible that the teacher hates such a poor student. But this does not affect Tom’s dream of winning honor and working hard by using tricks for it. Luckily, the cunning boy eventually wins to use his cleverness. In order to obtain honor, he doesn’t hesitate to give all his favorite toys, because in the eyes of other children, this is regarded as worthy of jealousy or even bitterness. Such a glorious award has become the once-in-a-lifetime event for the school, especially for the students who have won the prize. In order to obtain it, every student has an ambition in his heart. Inspired by this sense of honor, Tom, who cannot even say the names of the twelve disciples, exchanges all his treasures for the yellow tickets he needed to get the bible and eventually win the prize. In Sherwood Forest, Tom and his friends aspires to be as heroic as Robin Hood, and also regret that there are no more Green Forest heroes. They would rather be a green man in the forest for a year than a lifetime president of the United States. This kind of desire for social fame and honor is Tom’s early pursuit and yearning goal. Gradually, the material fame just briefly satisfies children’s curiosity. Only after experience can they discover what is really valuable to follow. In a number of adventures, Tom is not only in peril more than once, but even nearly loses his life. The naughty boy’s coming forward at a critical moment also reminds us that true courage is not to be simply brave, but to overcome fear again and again. After witnessing the murder of Injun Joe in the graveyard, Tom stays awake all night, suffering in fear, and finally points out the real murder in court. Considering the consequences of losing his life at any time, Tom still chooses the righteous side. Even with inner fear and entanglement, his final choice is unexpectedly impressive. On the emotional side, this change in pursuit is even more pronounced. Tom shows a preliminary heroism as he endures Becky Thatcher’s emotional punishment. Instead of being trapped in a swamp of emotions by a moment of sadness and anger, he is able to change his mood and pursue new and more valuable goals. It shows the original heroism. This heroism fits the romantic chivalry spirit in the book, and it manifests itself not as a sudden solution to the real conflict, but as a more positive attitude towards the difficulties at hand. When Tom and Becky are trapped in a cave, his chivalry and ability represent a more meaningful, adult version of self-sacrifice and the integrity of caring for others. Tom has to grow through the test. Tom shows his growing maturity, competence and integrity when he begins to take the initiative to help others rather than focus on the entertainment which he gets from his daily trifles. 3. The Causes of the Growth and Transformation on Naughty Child 3.1 The Experience of Adventures Growth and transformation comes from every experience. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is composed of various kinds of events. It is through the social environment in the novel and the experience he has gained in adventures that the naughty boy Tom Sawyer gradually changes and grows up. We know that Tom is a child full of personality. Games are the knack for seeking pleasure in life, and adventures are the embodiment of his free nature. Driven by curiosity, Tom and his friend Huck want to explore the graveyard together, and they happen to encounter a terrible murder. The first reaction that Tom has witnessed is the fear and anxiety, because it is a matter of life and safety. Immediately, Tom and Huck run as fast as they can back to the leather factory, where they write a blood book and vow to keep the secret. From then on, the two urchins are extremely heavy in their minds, like holding down a big rock. It can be found that since witnessing the tragedy the naughty boy’s mentality has transformed. Tom is absent-minded in the days of keeping the secret, even in the old school where he can give full play of his tricks. His mind was suffering. It is under such a contradictory psychology that he considers not only just the troubles caused by simple jokes and pranks in the past, but being involved in social and moral issues that concern himself or others. At this time Tom has to make the choice like adults. We can also learn from it that an accidental adventure makes the naughty boy become entangled and cautious. Even if he does not stop playing in the future, the ambivalence that needs to consider and make choices quietly take root in him. When Tom finally chooses to bravely tell the truth and testify the killer, people are also surprised that this all-out mischief boy in the past can make such a heroic act. With this right choice, Tom seems to be turning from a naughty boy to a righteous urchin. In fact, Tom is a child with his own unique perspective on the world. Even though he is contrary to society, he is still affected by the surroundings. This experience is also the product of objective circumstances. Then see Tom and his friends on the runaway adventure on Jackson Island. They briefly experienced the joy of freedom. But temporary freedom cannot bring them long-term enjoyment. It doesn’t take long for them to miss home together. The stubborn Tom sneaks home alone, now he feels the importance of children in the eyes of adults. Therefore, the more urchins experience, the more they can gradually grow and change. Tom and Becky’s adventure in McDougaf Caves has pushed growth to a more mature transition. Attracted by the beauty during the picnic, Tom decides to explore in the cave, and Becky responds to him actively. But in a moment the terror and timidity of the child reappears as the two poor little creatures are lost in the darkness of the cave. It is not difficult to imagine how frightening it would be to be in a hopeless situation with no way out in the dark. But now Tom shows his unusual composure confronting Becky. He knows that he can’t be defeated by the difficulties, and he comforts the timid girl at the same time. If in accordance with the initial personality, Tom can completely ignore it and maintain his own mentality. And the growth he gains in the adventure requires him to be a man, and this time he chooses the latter. As he tries to find an exit, he encounters the murderer Indian Joe in the dark and is scared and panicked. Instead of bringing the terror to his little partner Becky, Tom returns to Becky to continue to encourage and accompany her. This not only makes Tom’s manhood more complete, candid, positive, and brave in life, but also shows a more mature treatment to tackle difficulty in his mind, which is the embodiment of the transformation and growth of the naughty boy. 3.2 The Formation of Responsibility Growth means that one gradually becomes aware of duty for himself. Obviously, after Tom meeting the girl Becky in the novel, he not only gets a taste of vague love, but also learns the truth about the responsibility of being a real man. His changing emotional attitude towards those people around him also has explained the need not only to take responsibility for his own actions, but also to stand up for others when things come necessarily. In Chapter 20, the misunderstanding between Tom and Becky is a contradiction between them, and the two sides are in a stalemate. At this time, Becky peeks at the mysterious book that the principal usually locks in a drawer, which is accidentally bumped into by Tom. She tears the book in panic and makes trouble. When the principal begins to investigate on the spot, Tom stands up at the critical moment to help the poor girl. Not only is Becky admiring such behavior, we are also deeply attracted by the urchins in front of us. Tom knows that the disagreement between him and Becky is a temporary irresolvable depression, but he also knows the principles of responsibility and love clearly. In the face of his beloved girl, Tom seems to grow up all of a sudden. His hazy pursuit of love further inspires his wisdom and spirituality. Tom, who has always been sloppy in the past, begins to pay attention to his own image. It is hard to imagine that a naughty boy who is usually crazy like a wild child can know to protect his cherished person. And Tom happens to know the adult’s sense of mission and responsibility in gaining love. This also provides a new direction for his later personality change. Tom grows up gradually in love. His heart is not as scaly and numb as in Huck’s. Tom still has good thoughts in his mind, and he misses Aunt Polly and the villagers. He is afraid that others will worry about his running away home too long. Even if he is far away on the small desert island, he wants to return to the town. Even if naughty Tom plays tricks in front of adults, all this is just a means for children to gain adult attention. Although Tom is in always a carefree appearance, we can still feel in his rich inner world which illustrates that he is a lonely child longing for his parents. So Mark Twain creates an amiable aunt for this child. She gives Tom a warm experience in some way, even though the naughty boy often brings her a sea of troubles. Tom Sawyer’s personal growth, whether from the naive and impulsive at first, full of dissatisfaction with the social environment, or in adventures with friends later, he constantly accepts and transforms. Tom Sawyer uses his own childlike love and responsibility to take risks and find his own growth path. 3.3 The Growth of Self-consciousness The growth and transformation of naughty boys is actually the result of the enhancement of self-awareness and the development of independence. With the growth of knowledge, the broadening of horizons, the diversity of interests, and the expansion of communications and so on, the awareness of teenagers as an independent person has gradually risen. This is a period when a new self begins to awaken, and they no longer regulate their behaviors entirely through the caress or reproach of their parents. They no longer judge their right or wrong behaviors by compliment or criticism of their teachers. And they do not guide their actions according to the likes or dislikes of their partners and the approval or disapproval of the surroundings. At this time, the juvenile self-consciousness mutates, resulting in a sense of adulthood and independence. They hope to be respected and recognized by adults, long to become an independent person with their own independent and free value existence. In the process of growing up, children always want to be the true one in the mirror, that is, the ideal image in their hearts. Tom in the novel is a child who, like his peers, goes to Sunday-school. The idol in Tom’s heart is a man in the green forest who acts on justice and leads a life of adventure and excitement. But the town of Petersburg looks like a puddle of backwater without ripples, stagnant and tedious. Life here makes Tom’s ideal impossible to achieve. Being too lively and active is an absurd figure in the eyes of residents here. Therefore, the early rebellion of the naughty Tom is also one of the manifestations of self-consciousness. In his innovative mischief, we can see that a teenager’s self-consciousness develops and matures gradually from emergence to germination, which are the development of personality and the pursuit of self-worth that Tom himself is not aware of. With the germination of self-awareness, the naughty child Tom’s worldview, outlook on life, and values are gradually established, and he can clearly understand the goals he wants to pursue and determine his future ideals. Tom falls into a deep emotional entanglement because of a misunderstanding after his acquaintance with the girl Becky. He changes from depression and anger at the beginning to self-digestion. The sentimental boy flees into the forest to contemplate life. Fortunately, the relaxed and flexible heart of a young person cannot be crammed into a depressed state for long periods of time. Tom changes into a self-pursuit mentality. Driven by such self-awareness, he is able to change his mind in time. He intends to be a soldier, returning with all scars but great glory, or a brave and powerful pirate riding the wind and waves on the rolling sea. Great future career plans are more attractive to him than temporary sentimental emotions. Tom is also willing to follow the bright future with his better development. Thus, running away from home, the basic option for freedom in his opinion becomes a necessary preparation. When he dreams about being a great outlaw Robin Hood in Sherwood Forest, Tom and his friends regret that there are no more famous heroes. The two partners agree to be a Robin Hood in the forest for a year rather than a lifelong president of the United States. The desire for freedom can be said to be one of the results in the growth of Tom’s self-consciousness. 4. Conclusion In the novel, the urchin Tom Sawyer is not an ideologically bad urchin but a character with multiple implications. His characteristic is obviously outstanding. In the rigid life, Tom not only has to cope with the tedious work, the teacher’s false dogma, but also avoids his aunt’s strict discipline. Tom is a typical naughty boy with his playfulness and naughtiness at the beginning. He is the troublesome character in life, and in some ways he is the mirror which reflects the shadow of each of us in childhood. In the meantime, after a series of storms, his self-consciousness begins to wake up. Naughty children are aware of what choices to make under what kinds of circumstances. They, like adults, have their own world and rights to choose. They will be confused, eager for self-independence but constrained by adults, society and traditional authority. In reality, naughty children are not welcome in adults’ eyes. Because of living in a hypocritical society, the urchin cannot accept hypocrisy but pursue reality of life. This is also the conflict between naughty children and objective world in the process of growing up and transformation. As a result, the urchins resist authority and challenge established social conventions. Even Tom hides a simple and righteous childlike innocence beneath his sensitive and thoughtful appearance. Their confusion and thinking about life are signs of their maturity. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer narrates the transformation and growth of teenagers’ self-consciousness in the form of several adventures experienced by Tom and his partners. The experience of those adventures can help them enter the adult world truly and figure out the goals or ideals confidently. After a series of baptism of life, these teenagers will return to real life with tenacity and independence. We need to believe that the naughty boy is not the uneducated child; on the contrary, his essence is virtuous and adorable. References [1] Sharsha, V. Realism and Racism in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer [J]. Smart Moves Journal IJELLH, 2018(4):342-343. [2] Mohamad Arli Ramadhani. 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